Numbers in brackets refer to Main
is and 8 mm. small-film shooting
camera for the amateur. Its well shaped exterior, the
light weight, the easy handling and the manifold
attachments amplify much its scope of
This camera is arranged for 7.5 m.
double-8 daylight film-spools. It is driven by a spring
motor, which can be easily tensioned by a winding key.
The spring motor's pulling power, when fully rewound,
amounts to about 2 m of film. With a fixed frequency of
16 pictures per second this frequency corresponds to
about 30 seconds run. An acoustic signal - which sounds,
when the counter proceeds - serves as a clue to determine
the length of scene.
There is a warning mark in the
viewfinder, which releases the view-finder's vista at the
beginning and appears in the vista.
Figure 1 AK8 front
In view of the relatively short focal
length in connection with the aperture proportion of the
lens 1:2.8 10 mm. (1) permits a fixed so-called
fixed-focus setting independent of the shooting distance.
The range of depth of field is as follows:
f/2.8 - from 2.10 m to
f/4 - from 1.67 m to
f/5.6 - from 1.30 m to
f/8 - from 1.00 m to
f/11 - from 0.77 m to
The built-in optical view-finder of
the AK 8 is adjusted for a medium distance, parallax-free
to the beams' way of the shooting lens. For close-up
views less than 1 m it is necessary to consider the
view-finder's parallax. The view-finder picture
corresponds to the projecting picture. A control mark
(warning mark) is additionally installed in the
view-finder. It is coupled with the counter and
disappears after the film's credit lines but appears
again 7.5 m before the film's end.
Figure 2 Selector switch with
screwed-in wire release
Release Button and
The release button (5) can be operated
either by hand or wire release. The kind of run can be
varied by turning the sleector switch (6) to
L opposite of the index point
= normal run
D opposite of the index point =
E opposite of the index point =
Exposure time for all 3 positions
about 1/32 second.
The spring can be tensioned by means
of the winding key (4) by seven clockwise revolutions.
Stops are installed to limit the winding and the run-off
to protect the spring, firstly against overstrain and
secondly to guarantee a steady frequency of pictures
within the spring's run. If the camera is not used for
more than 4 weeks it is advisable to let it run off until
Figure 3 Film
The camera is opened by pushing
upwards the locking knob (8) at the back. The
double-eight spool with 7.5 m reverse film can be loaded
in daylight. It is pushed onto the feed-axle (13) in such
a way that the film runs off in the direction of the
arrow on the cover plate (16). After having uncoiled
about 20 cm of film it is pulled into the film-channel
over the lead-in roll (14) and at the same time the
pressure-plate lever (12) pulled back.
This is done in the direction of the
run until the film is properly placed within the
guide-tips and is held by the gripper springing in. The
empty spool, indicated by the trade-mark, is pulled off
the take-up axles (9), then the film's tongue is pushed
in, always observing the film-run's marks, the spool is
again plugged in and slightly tensioned with a finger.
Before the camera is closed, convince yourself by a short
pressing of the release button (5) and setting the
selective switch (6) on "L" that film-advance and the
take-up operate satisfactorily.
Figure 4 Camera
After closing the camera, whereby the
cover must be pressed until the lock clicks, the film
counter (11) is brought to position "A" by turning
anti-clockwise the setting knob (3) and the spring motor
is wound by means of the winding key (4). Thereupon the
camera is set in motion by pressing the release button
(5), until the "O" of the counter (11) is under the index
In this way the film credit, i.e. the
film exposed during loading, is reeled off. At the same
time at "O" position of the counter the warning mark in
the viewfinder (2) disappears as a signal that the camera
is ready to shoot. After about 7.5 m film-run the warning
mark appears again in the view-finder. Before opening the
camera it snecessary to get the film-end advanced until
the counter has moved from 7.5 m to "E". After openng the
camera the film-end is eventually still to be reeled in.
Now, for the exposure of the second film-half the loaded
film-spool is pulled off the take-up axle (9) and - the
trade-mark facing the cover plate - is placed on the
feed-axle (13). Attention must be paid that the film on
the loaded spool is held by slight finger pressure to
When using Agfa - metal spools, it is
essential after the first film run to push the now-empty
spool - the core's twopiece opening pointing upwards - on
the take-up axle (9). The loading of the film for the
second exposure takes lpace in the same way as described
before. A third exposure by mistake is impossible with
this spool design. A ready-made 7.5 m double-eight film
yields, developed and cut, 15 m. film ready for
projection, which runs about 4 minutes through the
projector at 16 pictures per second. Do not neglect to
clean the film-trap (19) and the pressure plate of the
camera from time to time. For this purpose the
pressure-plate holder (17) is pulled upwards and at the
same time the pressure plate lever (12) pulled back and
thus the film-channel and the picture-gate are set free.
When closing the camera, the fixing pin (10) is pressed
by the cover and in this way the correct position of the
pressure plate is automatically guaranteed.
The following additional devices are
valuable effective presentation-means for the enlivenment
of the film-rhythm, which will be most welcome to every
Figure 6 Exposure-setting dial AK
The Exposure Setting
Dial AK 8 shall aid all users to
find the correct aperture setting at a fixed
frame-frequency, also if they do not possess an electric
exposure meter. The triangle on the adjustable outer ring
is turned to the film sensibility value corresponding to
the film inserted.
The 3 fields bright, hatched and dark
to the right and left of the aperture-figures have the
1) bright, beach at the seaside, high
2) hatched, wide streets, bright
3) dark, narrow lanes, under
The 4 symbols at the lower part of the
exposure-setting dial mean from left to right:
1) sunlight, cloudless sky
2) slightly veiled sun
3) half clouded sky
4) dull cloudy sky
The numbers of the four symbols are
the corresponding focal aperture values, the numbers with
a ring exceed the possible focal aperture values of the
lens and must be adjusted by means of filters, see table.
Here an example: Operating at the seaside with cloudless
sky with 21/10 DIN film, of the left symbol the number
(2) is read i.e. adjust the lens on focal aperture (11)
and attach the neutral grey filter No. 1.
To obtain certain contrasts for shots
to convey a mood or special effect as well as for the
extension of the diaphragm scale of the lens the user has
at his disposal the following colour filters and neutral
Aperture opening in focal aperture
For the use of these filters the
respective factors of extension and the such resulting
aperture opening of the aperture opening degrees are to
be considered. If shooting specially bright subjects,
which with the smallest aperture in connection with the
constant time of exposure still render overexposed films,
a commercail neutral grey-filter N1 should be
The range of focal aperture is
extended by 2 steps with these filters. For instance:
Measured time of exposure 1/32 sec., with focal aperture
11. When using a grey-filter on some conditions the
aperture 5.6 results.
For shots at close range under 0.77 m
it is essential to provide the camera's lens with
attachment lenses. Hereby special attention is to be paid
to the parallax correction. According to the lens
attached the range of depth of field is as
70 - 165 cm.
65 - 220 cm.
56 - 475 cm.
42 - 60 cm.
39 - 68 cm.
36 - 82 cm.
29 - 38 cm.
28 - 40 cm.
26 - 44 cm.
22 - 28 cm.
21 - 31 cm.
When shooting with these lenses it is
advisable to light up the subject to such an extent that
the correct time of exposure is obtained as per aperture
values indicated above.
Grey-filters, additional lenses and
colour filters are fitted to the screw thread of the lens
Figure 8 AK 8 with compendium and
Modern movie shooting without
compendium is almost unthinkable nowadays. The compendium
of the AK8 consists of two parts, the chromium-plated
optic tube-ring marked AK8 and the compendium optic
tubes. The first is screwed into the internal thread of
the lens' outer ring and the optic tube pushed onto the
tube ring. The attached optic tube represents an ideal
At the front of the tube there are two
slideways, to which the added masks can be slipped on. In
connection with them the greatest variety of effects can
be obtained, such as keyhole - field-glass or telescope
views, also double - or displacing shots. In addition,
further trick-masks can be made at low costs according to
requirement. There is also an iris-diaphragm attachment
to circle in and circle out and can be placed on the ring
instead of the compendium tube.
Figure 9 AK8 with circle in-diaphragm
and reverse reeling crank
Figure 10 AK8 with aperture lever and
reverse reeling crank
Crank and Aperture Lever
To create soft transitions to carry
one scene into another for dissolves the reverse-reeling
crank and the aperture lever are used.
The reverse-reeling crank is fitted to
the coupling place (7) of the camera by turning the
arrow-marked screw to the left. The aperture-lever is
pushed onto the aperture-ring of the lens (1) by
spreading the cyclic clamping, the aperture ring having
been set beforehand according to light-conditions. When
pushed on, the handle of the lever must touch the button
of the selective switch (6). For back-reeling the film
the reverse-reeling handle of the crank, running under
friction, is turned anti-clockwise (direction of arrow)
until the click of the release-button is audible. One
revolution corresponds to the return-travel of one
picture. 40 pictures maximum can be spooled back into the
At a constant frequency of 16 frames
per second a change-over or dissolve should lasy only 2
seconds maximum. This is in accordance with an exposure
of 32 frames. During this time the aperture is shut by
means of the aperture-lever. The film is now returned
with the aid of the reverse-reeling crank - the lens
having been covered before - by 32 frames, corresponding
in this case with 32 revolutions. (Pay special attention
that the spring motor is not fully tensiones, otherwise
troubles may occur.)
Now the next focusing takes place and
during the elapse of 2 seconds, the camera running, the
aperture-lever is moved up to the stop to fade
Figure 11 Titler with set-up
Every amateur will be desirous to
provide his films with initial and intermediate titles.
The simple and easily transportable titler of the AK8
offers him the best opportunity to make movie titling
himself. The attachment lens in +4 diopters, essential
for the subject-to-lens-distance, is located at the
fixing knob of the titler. Before shooting the
picture-area must be determined and marked. For this
purpose, the camera is screwed onto the titler, opened
and the pressure-plate removed. To mark the
picture-section, a pocket-lamp is applied to the
film-trap and thus you get an illustration of the
picture-gate on the screen. Keep in mind, since the
shooting size of the camera is larger than that of the
projector, that the measurement of the rectangle ought
not exceed 82 x 110 mm. (The title is cut for
The 4-diopter attachment lens requires
a minimum screening off to 5.6. The sort of exposure
(direct or indirect light) can be chosen as the user may
determine. For letter-titling the titler can be used
vertically, standing by itself on a table or hung up on a
wall-hook. For such shots it is recommended to use a
wire-release. The titler can be also employed for outdorr
close-up views (flower shots, small animal shots etc.) if
the cardboard support is pulled out.
Figure 7 AK8 in ever-ready
Every amateur will be anxious to
protect his camera against weather factors and damage of
any kind. The ever-ready case of the AK6 is designed for
those who want their camera including the protective
casing always ready for immediate shooting. All control
elements are accessible after opening the case's front
and side wings. Moreover, there is an opening at the
coupling place in the case for the reverse-reeling crank
to be inserted. Solely for film loading the camera must
be taken out of the case.
1. Hold your camera steady and upright
2. Avoid panning too rapidly when
shooting and abstain from pans contrary to the subject's
direction of movement! A pan of 90 degrees should last at
least 15 seconds.
3. The 8 mm film is mainly suitable
for groups and close-up views, less for total and
4. Avoid too long and too short
scenes! The normal length of a scene should be between 4
- 8 seconds.
5. Get accustomed to rewind the spring
after each scene so that your camera is always ready to
shoot at the "critical moment"!
6. Never let the loaded camera run up
to the last picture of a spring winding!
7. Do not load or reload in direct
8. Since black and white and colour
reverse films have a smaller exposure range it is
essential to select accurately the lens aperture. A
photo-electric exposure meter is most suitable for this
9. For shots in counter-light the lens
must be protected against direct incident light
10. Plan thoroughly what you want to
shoot. Thus you save film material and facilitate
11. For viewing, marking, cutting and
editing there is a movie viewer and editor available in