F. and S. Marriott 140 Newbegin, Hornsea, England, HU18 1PB

February 2010. Stephanie is seriously ill. Therefore, there may be considerable delay in responding to e-mails. We will try to continue to despatch orders promptly. The shop is open by appointment only. Thank-you for your continuing patience.

Beaulieu R8 (MR8 and TR8) Instructions (with illustrations)

Introduction

Preliminaries

Loading Procedure

Lens Selection

Diaphragm Setting

Focusing and Framing

Filming Speeds

Shooting

Special Effects

Movie Effects

Animation

Movie Making - The Scene

Movie Making - Picture Quality

Maintenance

Bottom of page

Note: numbers in brackets refer to the main pictures.
The lucky owner of an 8 mm. Beaulieu Reflex camera should have no difficulty in shooting good films, right from the start, if he observes the following simple instructions, even though photography or film-making may be entirely new ground for him.

The instructions closely follow the natural sequence of operation from loading to unloading.

Another chapter is reserved for the description of special effects which can be easily obtained, with a minimum of "know-how", with this advanced cine-camera. Beginners are also given a few hints and tips on how to avoid the usual technical mistakes of neophyte cameramen.

Finally, a special chapter is devoted to vital advice on how to maintain your camera in perfect condition.

I - General Instructions

Preliminaries

1. Load your camera with a standard 7.50 m. spool.

2. If your camera is a type T.R.8 (3-lens turret), select lens to suit scene to be shot.

3. Estimate light intensity of the scene, either by means of a photocell lightmeter or from the table.

4. Frame scene by looking through the viewfinder. Focus by means of the range ring on the lens.

5. Set filming speed to required value.

6. Trip release button and begin shooting.

1 - R8 Loading Procedure

IMPORTANT. Never run an unloaded camera at more than 24 f.p.s.

Loading is performed under conditions of dimmed lighting. Select a dark or shaded spot for this operation.

1. Free the winding crank handle (3) from the fixing stud. Pivot crank through 180 degrees about its hub and wind up fully, turning in a clockwise direction. Do not wind beyond stop limits. Again pivot the crank handle 180 degrees about its hub, turn anticlockwise to bring handle to locking stud.

2. Open camera lid by unlocking knob (13) in direction indicated. Remove empty spool supplied with camera.

3. Reel-out 30 to 40 cm. of non-exposed film and place film spool over its spindle (ph. 3, 16). Check that locating lug (17) is correctly engaged into spool square recess.

4. Pull out slightly the floating pressure plate (19) and insert film between plate and gate (20) after threading it along arrow-indicated path, over upper roller (18). The film also passes between the gate and the film guide (21) and over the lower roller (22). Check that film is well engaged in the gate: the pressure plate should snugly press upon the gate.

5. Bend end of film in the shape of a clip of 1 to 2 cm. length. Insert into slot of hub of empty spool. Wrap tightly 3 or 4 turns of film over spool hub.

6. Pull counter feeler clear of film, by means of lever (24) and place empty spool over take-up spool spindle (23), positioning locating lug as in the case of the feeding spool. Release trip button (9) to run a few cm. of film and check that everything is in order.

7. Close camera lid.

a) press on locking knob (13).

b) Turn locking knob clockwise. Fold key down, flush with camera body.

2 - Lens Selection

A - If your camera is a Beaulieu Model M.R. 8

In common with all Beaulieu cameras, your Model M.R.8 can be equipped with any standard lens, with type C-mount (15.8 mm. dia. - 32 threads/inch - normalized threading length not exceeding 3.8 mm.)

If your camera is equipped with a "normal" lens (12.5 mm. focal length for 8 mm. size films) you can tackle most subjects. However, putting the interchangeability feature of your camera to good use, you can also employ a comprehensive range of extra lenses of different field angles. For instance, "wide-angle" lenses (focal length of approx. 6 mm.) that cover a wide field of vision, and a "telephoto" lens (35 mm. and even 50 mm. focal length) which covers only a restricted span of vision, but magnifies and "scans" the details of the scene.

There is an "optimum" lens for every scene: optimize your movies by using the lens most suitable for the scene.

If your M.R.8 is equipped with a variable focal length lens.

This type of objective combines, in one single lens, the features of the normal range of fixed focal length lenses. There is, accordingly, no need for prior lens selection: the operator simply chooses the most suitable field angle (wide, normal, telephoto . . . and all intermediate ranges) from observation through the viewfinder and sets it by means of the knurled ring on the lens.

B- If your camera is a Model T.R.8

In that case, the turret is equipped with three lenses of different focal length, generally wide-angle, normal, telephoto, assuring three fields of different spans.

The lens to be used should be in the upper position on the turret. Proceed as follows to bring it to its operating position: Hold the camera with the left hand. Disengage turret-locking pawl by pressing on it with the thumb of the right hand. Simultaneously, the fore or middle finger of the right hand pushes one of the three lenses, rotating the turret clockwise. The locking pawl can now be released. Continue to apply pressure to the lenses (without forcing) until the turret locks into the next indexing position. The upper lens will then be automatically set in the correct working position. Lenses are interchangeable, as on the M.R.8. The turret accepts all lenses with standard mounts. Relative lens position on the turret is immaterial.

Extension tubes and rings

Designed for macrocinephotography work, these lens extensions permit close-up filming of very small items, making them appear on the film larger than normally visible to the eye.

A complete set of extension tubes and rings may be obtained from any Beaulieu agent. They are made in combination form so that they may be mounted either on 8 mm. or 16 mm. cameras.

3 - Diaphragm Setting

Diaphragms have a light-gating function. They form circular orifices of variable aperture controlling the amount of light impinging on the sensitive surface of the film. By varying the diamter of the aperture, the luminous flux can be accurately dosed to assure correct tone or colour rendering. Too much light results in over-exposure, too little light in under exposure.

How to estimate correct exposure?

a. Photo-cell exposure-meters

Whenever possible, use an exposure meter. When the window of the photo-sensitive cell is pointed at the object to be filmed, the meter registers the amount of reflected light in the form of "stop" readings.

To simplify matters, most meters are calibrated on the assumption that a continuous film speed of 16 (or 18) frames-per-second (f.p.s.) corresponds to an exposure of 1/32 second per frame, a speed of 24 f.p.s. corresponding to 1/48 (or 1/50) second.

However, few cameras are actually timed on that basis. The R.8 for one is timed to give a 1/50 second exposure at 18 f.p.s.

Consequently, the 1/50 second setting, provided on all exposure meter scales, will be used as the reference value when the 18 f.p.s. speed setting is employed. At other speed settings the exposure will be:-

12 f.p.s. = 1/30 sec. per frame

18 f.p.s. = 1/50 sec. per frame

24 f.p.s. = 1/70 sec. per frame

48 f.p.s. = 1/140 sec. per frame

64 f.p.s. = 1/180 sec. per frame

If, after processing, the films show consistent over or under exposure, the exposure meter should be verified by a specialist.

b. Stop setting chart

In the absence of an exposure meter, the stop settings indicated in the charts provide a fair method of estimation.

With practice, you will acquire a flair for correct light evaluation and will no longer need to refer to the charts.

Subject

Lighting

Cloudless noon sunlight, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Sun slightly obscured or summer sunlight (before 11 a.m., after 4 p.m.)

Sun obscured by white clouds

Sun obscured by heavy clouds

Bright (snow, clouds, sand, beach)

front

side

against light

f/9

f/8

f/5.6

f/6.3

f/6.3

f/5.6

f/4

f/4

f/4

x

x

x

Light (sea, flowers against skyscape)

front

side

against light

f/8

f/6.3

f/4.5

f/5.6

f/5.6

f/4.5

f/4

f/4

f/4

x

x

x

Average (landscape, flowers against lawn background)

front

side

against light

f/6.3

f/5.6

f/4

f/4.5

f/4.5

f/4

x

x

x

Dark (in shadows)

side

f/4
f/4
x
x
Chart for film speed range 10 to 12 ASA (22 - 23 Scheiner)

Subject

Lighting

Cloudless noon sunlight, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Sun slightly obscured or summer sunlight (before 11 a.m., after 4 p.m.)

Sun obscured by white clouds

Sun obscured by heavy clouds

Bright (snow, clouds, sand, beach)

front

side

against light

f/16

f/12.5

f/11

f/12.5

f/12.5

f/11

f/8

f/8

f/8

x

x

x

Light (sea, flowers against skyscape)

front

side

against light

f/12.5

f/11

f/9

f/11

f/11

f/8

f/8

f/8

f/8

x

x

x

Average (landscape, flowers against lawn background)

front

side

against light

f/12.5

f/11

f/8

f/8

f/8

f/6.5

f/5.6
x

x

x

Dark (in shadows)

side

f/8
f/6.5
x
x
Chart for film speed range 32 to 40 ASA (27 - 28 Scheiner)

4 - Focusing and Framing

Having selected your subject and decided on a suitable lens and diaphragm setting, you are about to proceed with the subject focusing and framing part of the job. This operation is capital for the success and quality of the film.

Beaulieu R8 viewfinder system

You have, in the R.8, a camera equipped with a remarkable reflex viewfinder designed to assure superior focusing and framing. Focusing is responsible for the definition of the recorded image. It is based on a correct estimation of distance. With non-reflex cameras, the distance from camera to subject is assessed in meters or feet and set on the focusing ring of the lens. This method is generally adequate but does not guarantee correct results.

Correct range appreciation is often difficult to achieve, and such errors will be apparent on the film. The operator may also be over-hasty and be satisfied with a rough approximation when he does not completely forget to set the range . . . Now, definition is generally consistent when the subject is within the 30-meter and over range. At shorter range this is no longer true. With a longer focal lens, a subject which is sharply focussed at 3.50 m. will be less sharp at 4 m., out of focus at 5 m.

The Beaulieu Reflex Viewfinder system does away with any possibility of range-setting error. The principle of operation is the following: Having traversed the lens the light flux is stopped between the lens and the film by a shutter curtain. A mirror is mounted, at 45 degrees relative to the focal plane, on the shutter. The mirror receives the light and reflects it to a ground glass. The eye, applied to the eyepiece of the viewfinder system, examines the image through a lens with a magnifying power of x20.

The sliding-type shutter then retracts clear of the light path and the image impresses the sensitive surface of the film. In step with the film actuating motion, the shutter rises, the mirror catches the image, reflects it to the operator's eye, again retracts free of the light path, unmasking the film, the sequence being repeated at a rapid rate (18, 24, 48 times per second), depending on the speed setting. This constitutes what is known as "reflex viewfinding", the operator viewing exactly that image which is actually impressed on the film.

The Beaulieu Reflex system offers one outstanding advantage: 100% of the light gated by the objective reaches the viewer's eye. Hence, the term of "ultra-luminous" used to define the Beaulieu system. This "plus" feature permits accurate and comfortable focusing, even at very small stops.

The unique characteristics of the Beaulieu Reflex system warrant a few additional explanations. If Beaulieu had utilized a straight reflex system, whereby the image is directed from the mirror directly to the observer's eye ("aerial image"), the image, though very luminous, would lack definition at certain ranges, so that focusing would be difficult to achieve, especially with long focal-length lenses.

Beaulieu uses a ground-glass field lens placed between the viewfinder eyepiece and the mirror. This lens "freezes" the picture, giving optimum definition at selected ranges. To prove this point: Set your camera for tele-lens shooting - set focusing (range) ring to infinity (opposite red mark) - point camera at sky. (If you normally wear glasses, you can take them off. Simply adjust eyepiece to your sight, rotating ring (2) to obtain maximum definition of grain pattern of ground glass.)

Your eyepiece is now adjusted to your eyesight, providing optimum vision with all lenses. Now, point at an object within short range, sat 3 meters. The focusing ring being set to infinity, the image viewed in the viewfinder will be out of focus. Gradually adjust the focusing ring: the object will come into clear focus and finally assume optimum definition. If you overshoot the point of optimum focusing the image will again become hazy. Return to the point of accurate focusing.

You will now note that the background is out of focus. Actually, this contrast between the definition of the selected subject and the softness of the other levels is responsible for the "3-D" impression that adds quality to your images.

This short practical approach to "spatial" appreciation has, we think, brought out for you the unparallelled advantages of Beaulieu reflex viewfinding: you retain at all times complete "visual" mastery over your filming.

You can, while filming, shift the focus from one subject to another, or again gradually bring that subject into focus, to introduce a dramatic touch.

Screening will bring no unpleasant surprises, since you were perfectly aware of what the scene looked like to the camera when you were actually filming.

Naturally, framing problems are automatically solved: unless deliberately introduced, "chopped" heads and poorly centred objects will never be found in your films.

5 - Filming Speeds

Filming speed is the number of frames per second moving past the objective (normal speed: 16 f.p.s). However, the 16 f.p.s. rate is not indicated on the speed setting knob (10) (which has an 18 f.p.s.) setting. Why? Because it was observed that, by slightly increasing the f.p.s. setting, picture quality was improved. You will find that, shooting at 18 f.p.s. assures improved screening smoothness.

Other speed settings are provided:

  • 12 f.p.s. for moderate "accelerated motion." Also used to compensate for a lack of ambient lighting: the actual increase in exposure time obtained with the lower speed is equivalent to an extra half stop.
  • Speed settings of 24, 48 and 64 f.p.s. provide increasingly slower motion effects. The action of the speed control is continuously variable, that is, all intermediate speeds are obtainable. The operator can change, at will, from accelerated to slow-motion throughout the filmed scene. However, it should be borne in mind that, by altering the speed, exposure times are simultaneously modified and, accordingly, the stop settings whould be adjusted in accordance with the following table:

    f/1.4

    f/1.7

    f/2

    f/2.4

    f/2.8

    f/3.4

    f/4

    f/4.7

    f/5.6

    f/6.3

    f/8

    f/9

    f/11

    f/13-f/16

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    48

    24

    18

    12

    Assuming the exposure meter reads 5.6 at 18 f.p.s., that is, an exposure time of 1/50 second, then if the speed setting is altered during shooting, the following stop settings are found along the same line (highlighted in blue):

    at 48 f.p.s. - f/3.4

    at 24 f.p.s. - f/4.7

    at 12 f.p.s. - f/6.3

    6 - Shooting

    A - Tripping

    Everything is set: diaphragm setting, focusing, speed. But before you press on the trigger release, have you got the right hold on your camera?

    a. Camera without grip attachment

    Camera held in right hand, palm of left hand pressed against lid, fingers wrapped over the camera. Right elbow against the body. Rubber eyepiece is pressed against eyebrow.

    b. Camera with grip attachment

    Camera hold is substantially improved and facilitated by the Beaulieu R.8 grip.

    An attractively styled attachment of functional design, this transparent polyester grip screws into the bushing (6) provided under the camera (normally used for fixing the wrist strap). The forefinger of the right hand, guided by the grip grooving, quite naturally slips into shooting position, against the trip button.

    The left hand remains free to adjust focusing, the eye remains fixed at the eyepiece while shooting.

    c. Tripod operation

    If you are striving for perfection, you should use a tripod stand which will assure real stability. This is particularly valuable with tele-lenses, when the slightest displacement is amplified and causes "jittery" pictures.

    The R.8 screws on the threaded bushing (6) used for fixing the wrist strap. Trip release is achieved: by trip button or by flexible trip cable.

    Trip Button

    Simply press on the button (9) and keep button depressed as long as you wish to film.

    If you are filming a continuous sequence: press on trip button and give quarter-turn twist that will lock it in the "running" position. Camera will continue until drive mechanism has run down. To stop filming, give another quarter-turn twist, which releases the button back into the "off" position.

    Flexible trip cable

    A flexible trip cable, provided with the camera, screws into the internal threading of the trip button. Intermittent or continuous trip control can then be assured by means of the flexible cable. The cable is used whenever the camera is tripod-operated or when the camera must be kept absolutely still.

    Anti-trip locking: Push the variable-aperture shutter lever (7) fully home.

    B - Film-running time

    With the drive mechanism fully wound, total runnning time is 30 seconds, at the rate of 18 f.p.s. You should get into the habit of winding-up the motor after each scene so as always to have some driving power in reserve.

    The black and white or colour film which you load into your camera is known as "double-eight" film. That is, the film has an overall width of 16 mm., but is only impressed in two successive strips of 8 mm. width (the reel being inverted after the first length has been impressed). Actual reel length is 7.50 m. overall impressed-track length: 15 m. The two half-strips are subsequently separated and spliced into one 8 mm. film for screening.

    Film running is monitored by means of a footage counter, providing in meters (readout 5) or feet (readout 4) indications of the remaining length of film available for impression.

     Counter actuation is controlled by a "feeler" finger (24) fixed to the shaft and which gradually moves away from the hub of the take-up spool as its load increases. Filming effectively begines immediately the red (feedin) section has rotated past the index line on the dial. When the red (film-ended) section reaches the index line on the dial, filming is over. However, run the film until the counter comes to a standstill and the tell-tale hum of the spool drive ceases. You then proceed to invert the spools in order to impress the second half of the film.

    To change, or invert the spools: open the lid, by means of button (13). This should be done in a well-shaded spot, and reel-up the last few inches of film which may still remain in the gate, by rotating the spool by hand, holding the feeler finger clear by means of lever (24). Remove spool, invert it and place it over the feeder spindle, proceeding as per loading prescriptions. Naturally the (empty) feeder spool will be placed over th etake-up spindle (23).

    Note: The same procedure will be followed for unloading the camera after the full 15 m. length is spent.

    II - Special Effects

    These may be either "movie" effects designed to make the film more attractive or to facilitate changeovers from one scene to another, or may relate to a cinema technique known as "animation".

    Special effects are achieved by means of the variable-aperture shutter system and reverse film drive. Animation is a frame-by-frame operation.

    1 - Movie Effects

    The variable-aperture shutter is a mechanism system (see fig. b) which consists in reducing or in increasing, as required, the amount of shutter gating from maximum opening to total masking. This special feature of the Beaulieu R.8 permits lap-dissolves from one scene to another, or one range to another.

    Shutter variation is controlled by a lever (7). Forward movement causes the shutter to close. Rearward movement, to open.

    The lever can be locked in the following positions:

    • shutter open
    • shutter half-open
    • shutter closed
    Beaulieu shutter diagram

    To lock lever: push knob towards lever axis.

    To unlock: push knob away from lever axis.

    a. Fading-in, fading-out

    With this facility, a scene can be ended by gradually dimming the images to total blanking and, conversely, to start a scene with images gradually emerging from complete darkness into normal brightness.

    Lap-dissolve effects should preferably be achieved with the camera mounted on its tripod, so as to be able to concentrate on the operation of the variable-aperture system.

    Fade-out

    Release lever from the "shutter-open" setting. Press on trip release and adjust variable-aperture lever by pushing it home (smoothly and gradually). Film drive will then automatically stop. The operation theoretically takes 4 seconds - hence the 0-1-2-3-4 markings on the hub disc. Start the operation with the "zero" count and try to keep count and markings (red index) in step.

    Once the operation is completed, the lever can be locked in the "shutter closed" position, so as to avoid accidental re-starting.

    Fade-in

    This is the reverse operation. It can immediately follow a fade-out or be used without previous fade-out, to introduce a new scene.

    Unlock lever from "shutter-closed" position, press on trip release and bring lever back, counting the seconds. Lock the lever.

    Naturally, these operations can be performed over a period of time shorter or longer than the usual 4 seconds, depending on the desired effect.

    b. Lap-dissolves

    Lap dissolves provide a transition between two scenes by super-imposing (double-exposure) the two scenes during a certain period of time, simultaneously fading one scene out and fading the new scene in. Lap dissolves entail the use of the frame counter (14) and reeling-back (or reverse-drive).

    Frame counter

    The frame counter is actuated by a pinion meshing into the perforations of the film (see fig. c). The forward or reverse motion of the film causes the rotation of the pinion and associated counter. The system provides frame-by-frame readings of strict accuracy.

    A knob (15) projecting over the centre of the dial escutcheon positions a red index line (to zero frame reading or any other reading), so that the number of spent frames over a given period of shooting can be readily evaluated.

    Note that the dial readings are from 1 to 100 and that, for prolonged scenes, 100 should be added to the reading observed.

    Beaulieu R8 Frame Counter diagram

    The frame counter is driven directly by the film; film running can therefore be monitored on the counter which also provides a means of checking whether the film is completely spent before unloading.

    Reeling-up (reverse film drive)

    Reeling-up is carried out by means of crank (12) which, once pulled out, directly clutches into the spindle of the feeder spool. The crank is then turned in the direction shown by the arrow, reeling-up the required number of frames (monitored on frame counter).

    Note that the reel may offer a certain amount of slack about the hub of the feeder spool. This does not effect correct operation. However, it may be necessary to take-up the slack by giving the crank a few turns. When the reeling-up operation is completed, fold crank reel down.

    A Unique Beaulieu R.8 Feature

    The lens never requires masking during reeling-up.

    Two cases may occur:

    • - motor spring spent - film driving sprocket projects in the film gate, blocking the reeling-up mechanism. The spring mechanism should be wound-up (1/2 turn will do), bringing the shutter to the closed position and retracting the sprocket

      - spring not quite spent: shutter is then closed, sprocket retracted. Reeling-up can take place without masking the lens.

    Lap-dissolve procedure

    • - fade-out, counting the seconds - work out the number of frames corresponding to the elapsed time, e.g. 4 seconds at 18 f.p.s. = 72 frames. Set the frame counter index to 72 and reel-back to zero. Re-start, feeding in the new scene during a period of time equal to that of the fade-out sequence.

    Other applications of the variable-aperture shutter

    The variable-aperture shutter affects the exposure time and consequently modifies the amount of light gated to the film. By suitable combining shutter adjustment and diaphragming, the recorded images can be accurately controlled. For example, one may, without altering the film spaeed (saving of film material), "shoot" mobile objects (racing cars, horses, etc.) by cutting down the exposure time (shutter to half-closed position). Sharper images will result.

    Naturally the diaphragm setting will have to be increased by one graduation (aperture doubled).

    Increasing the lens stop entails a decrease of field depth permitting "soft" or "hazy" effects, with subject in sharp focus in out-of-focus background.

    The variable-aperture shutter can also be used to reduce the amount of light (case of high light intensity and fast emulsions). With the variable-aperture knob set to the "half-closed" position, one full stop setting can be gained, without recourse to "neutral gray" filters of doubtful speed factor.

    As you gradually master these notions and gain experience, you will no doubt become an R.8 expert, always striving to get the best of your camera's unique possibilities, with the assistance of the variable speed shutter.

    Super-impression

    Super-impression (deliberate double or multi-exposure) may prove of great value when filming, say, firework displays, to provide a striking impressions og widespread pyrotechnics.

    The prime advantage of the R.8's "total reelup" is that it permits part or total film super-impression.

    Also, the feature permits the substitution for an unfinished back-and-white film, of a colour film, and conversely.

    This is accomplished by reeling-up the impressed length, counting the number of frames. When the film is again utilized, the film is run (with the lens duly masked!) through and equal number of frames. You are then ready again to shoot the balance of unexposed film on the reel.

    2 - Animation

    This technique consists in snapping a series of "still" pictures of an object or scene, the elements of which are slightly displaced between each successive still, so as to produce motion when the film is screened.

    The technique is used for the production of animated cartoons or to reproduce, over a short period of time, phenomena that normally take place over an extended period of time.

    For instance, changing cloudscapes can be filmed as a series of separate "snap" shots at 10 sec, 30 sec or 1-minute intervals, depending on the required speed. The growth of a plant may consist of a series of shots taken, for instance, every 24 hours. Proceed as follows:

    Screw into external release brushing (8) the flexible trip cable - press on trip control.

    Note that for animation work, the R.8 camera must be mounted on a tripod and a flexible trip cable used, to assure absolute stability.

    For individual frame filming, the following exposure times will be used:

    at 12 f.p.s. = 1/60 second

    at 18 f.p.s. = 1/100 second

    Note: Before proceeding to individua-frame shooting, set variable aperture lever to half-open position; otherwise trip cable cannot be screwed on bushing. Above time settings assume that variable-aperture lever is on that position.

    III - Amateur Movie Making Basics

    A film consists of scenes which themselves consist of a succession of images.

    The Scene

    Remember the golden rule of unity: unity of place - unity of time - unity of action.

    Unity of Place

    Restrict your filming to a specific portion of terrain: that portion which is framed in your viewfinder and no other. This will, in theory, exclude panning (side or vertical motion of the camera), used and abused by beginners. If you film a wide-field scene, break it down into successive static scens. If you must pan-over, please bear in mind that:

    1. The primary purpose of panning is to link-up to fixed scenes

    2. Panning must be performed very slowly: 90 degrees i.e. a quarter traverse in 15 seconds.

    Unity of Time

    Beginners tend to "shoot away", to switch too rapidly from one scene to another. The result is a series of disconnected "flashes". Minimum scene length, at 18 f.p.s., should be 3 to 4 seconds. Make it a habit to count, mentally, the seconds while filming a scene. Maximum duration for a given scene should not exceed 8 to 10 seconds, unless the scene is of exceptional interest.

    Unity of Action

    Interest must always be centered on a group, person or object. Do not scatter interest by crowding too many people or objects into the scene.

    Picture Quality

    Close Ups

    8 mm filming thrives on close-ups. The pictures should be as "large" as possible. Do not try to pack-in the whole horizon. Your picture should be unburdened and simply composed. Distant landscapes are disappointing. Close-ups never are.

    Level Pictures

    Your pictures should be level. Use horizontal and vertical items in the scene. Keep them parallel with your viewfinder.

    Stable Pictures

    Every movement of the operator is reflected, often amplified, on screening: steady your hold, whenever possible by supporting your arm or the camera on a static object. This is, in particular, essential when a tele-lens is used. Under such conditions, the Beaulieu R.8 reflex viewfinder assures you films of exceptional quality.

    Good Picture Definition

    Easy to achieve with the Beaulieu R.8 reflex groundglass viewfinding system.

    Correct Exposure

    Your best guide: an exposure meter. Can never be used too often, when filming. These instructions have deliberately been written in an elementary style, so that beginners will know each step of the way. As you acquire experience and skill, you will become your own best critic.

    MAINTENANCE

    Two requisites: a handblower and a soft-hair brush, are furnished with your Beaulieu R.8 [Note: these are usually missing when the camera is sold second-hand] They will help to keep the main components of your camera is dust-free condition.

    A. Lenses

    The lenses must be kept in spotlessly clean condition. External parts will be wiped with a soft non-fraying cloth. Never dampen the cloth.

    When you finish filming, always replace the protecting cap over the lens.

    B. Gate

    Clean frequently (every three or four spools) with the small brush supplied with the camera. Opening the pressure plate provides ample clearance for adequate brushing. Similarly the drive elements are easily cleaned once the drive guides are pulled out.

    C. Reflex System

    First, de-activate the motor by pressing on the trip button. Unscrew the lens. Bring one of the mirrors in front of the film aperture, by acting on the reel-up crank and the on the trip button. If dust is present on the mirror, blow it away with the hand-blower. Crank-back a little more: the second mirror appears. Clean it in the same manner. To reach the ground-glass lens, located to the left of the filming aperture, use the reverse motion crank, with the variable-aperture shtter lever set to "shutter-open". Once the two mirrors have been retracted in this manner, you will have easy access to the lens.

    Caution

    Never touch the mirrors or the ground-glass lens, even with the tip of the handblower. These delicate parts are easily scratched.

    D. Lubricating

    Theoretically, lubricating should be left to Beaulieu.

    Camera Registration Number

    The factory number of your camera is visible on the inner face of the case, near the wrist strap bushing.

     

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