Each model H camera has engraved on the front of the
viewfinder the size of film for which the camera is
intended: H16 for 16 mm. films and H8 for 8 mm. films
Each Model H camera is supplied with at least one lens
and the following accessories:
1 rewinding handle 25 or winding key 3
1 length of film (approx. one and half feet)
intended for practice with the automatic
2 empty take-up spools, one of 15 ft. and the
other of 100 ft. capacity
3 empty take-up spools (for 25 ft., 50 ft.,
and 100 ft.). The spools for 8 mm. double run differ
from those for 16 mm. in that they have different
holes for the spool spindles and are marked I and II
in white figures on the flange.
- Read carefully all instructions relating to the
use of the apparatus.
- Before loading with a spool, get acquainted with
the various controls and practise with the automatic
loading device by means of the length of film
- Never work the apparatus at a speed higher than 32
pictures per second unless the camera is loaded, as
there is a risk of injury to the mechanism.
- Do not rewind the spring motor unless lever 12 is
Chapter 1 Loading
Previous to Loading:
- The starting button 22 must be placed on
- Lever 12 must be clearly set on "Motor".
- The speed control 19 must be placed on 16 pictures
per second, i.e. the figure 16 must be opposite the
- Rewind the motor to the full, either by means of
rewinding handle 25 or of winding key 3. Rewind in the
direction shown by the arrow in Fig. 1. Winding key
screws on to the thread covered by the chromium-plated
screw 20, which can be unscrewed by means of a
- Remove the lid by means of button 43 (Figure 8),
giving a half-turn anti-clockwise.
- Push down lever 37 into the position shown in
Figure 7, so as to close the loop guides.
- Make sure that the film guides 34 and 36 are
pressed against the sprockets 32 and 38 and that pad
33 is pressed against gate 35.
- Place the spool of film on top spindle 29 so that
the film will unwind in the direction of the arrow
shown in Figure 5 (clockwise).
- The film must not be cut to a point (Fig. 4) nor
must it be crinkled. Hold the film between the thumb
and the index finger of the right hand and pass it
through knife 41 (see Fig. 5 and 7). With the index
finger of the left hand press hard on blade 42, which
will cut the end of the film to the right shape for
passage through the automatic loading device. Throw
away the cut end of the film to prevent its passing
through to the mechanism.
Film checking H8 cameras.
H8 cameras are provided with a film check which
presses against the coils of film on the feed and take-up
spools, this preventing them from unrolling during
loading or at the end of shooting (Fig. 9).
Before setting the spools in position in the camera,
open fully the two levers 45 and 46, placing them in
Hold the full spool in such a way that the coils do
not unroll and place it on its spindle 29, the notch at
the centre of the spool facing the red mark on the
spindle. Once the spool is in place, regulate the
position of lever 45 according to the capacity of the
spool by slightly lifting knob 47.
7.5 m spool = position a;
15 m spool = position b;
30 m spool = position c.
When loading is completed (see later sections) and the
take-up spool in place, regulate film check lever 46 in
the same way.
When unloading the camera, hold the take-up spool in
such a way that the coils do not unroll, then open fully
lever 46 (position c) before removing the spool (see
- Introduce the film into the mechnism
through opening 30.
- Press button 21 to set the motor in motion.
- Push the film fully through the opening until it
reaches sprocket 32, which will transport it through
loop guide 31. It will then pass through the gate and
through loop guide 39 and emerge through sprocket
- As soon as the film has passes through the lower
sprocket 38, stop the mechanism by releasing pressure
on button 21.
- Push up lever 37 so as to bring it back to the
horizontal position (see Fig. 6). This will open the
loop guides 31 and 39. Set the motor going once again
until the end of the film emerging from sprocket 38 is
of a length of about 8 to 10 inches.
- If the mechanism stops by itself before the film
emerges from sprocket 38, release button 21, open the
loop guides by means of lever 37 and set the mechanism
in motion again until about 8 to 10 inches of film
emerges from the sprocket.
- Insert the end of the film into the core slit of
the take-up spool, wind the film around the core and
place the film on lower spindle 40.
- Set the mechanism going for a second or two to
make sure that the loops remain as made and that the
film winds on to the lower take-up spool.
- Make sure that the loop guides are opened (lever
37 in horizontal position) and that the spools are
properly placed on spindles 29 and 40.
- Replace the lid of the camera and lock this by
turing button 43 in a clockwise direction. If any
difficulty is experienced in replacing the lid, do not
force it, but make sure that all parts of the film
transport mechanism are in position, as in Fig.
- In case of incorrect loading, remove the film,
winding it back on to the top spool (see Handcranking),
and reload more carefully. If need be, see Unloading
before the complete film has passed through.
- To check up at any time whether any film is left
in the gate, proceed as follows:
- Move lever 17 to position T (18), switch round
the turret so as to see the window of the gate and
set lever 22 on P (23), thus moving the shutter out
of the line of vision. It will then be seen whether
the leader, film or trailer is still in the gate.
If any unexposed film (yellow) is left in the gate,
then only one picture will be fogged.
Chapter II -
Transport of the Film
The counter 15 (in metres or feet) automatically
returns to zero as soon as the lid of the camera is
removed. It only functions once the lid is in position.
The space on the scale between A and O corresponds to the
passage of a length of approximately 4 ft. of leader. It
is provided for the passage of the film or leader which
is fogged during the loading. Once the lid has been
closed, set the mechanism in motion until the figure O
appears opposite the line on the counter. If the film
used is without leader or if the camera has been loaded
in a dark room so as to avoid any possibility of fogging,
"shooting" may be started immediately.
The counter, which is worked by the film transport
mechanism, adds when the film is being taken up by the
lower spool and subtracts when the film is being returned
to the top spool. The counter registers the amount of
film exposed to within 4 inches. The passage through the
gate of each 25 centimeres (approx. 10 inches) of film is
recorded by a slight clicking sound. It is therefore
possible to estimate the length of a scene without
removing one's eye from the viewfinder. A normal scene
(portrait etc.) generally measures from one to two metres
of film (three and a half to seven feet), corresponding
to 4-8 clicks of the counter.
To soften the sound of the audible footage indicator,
or to put it out of action, set on 0 the small lever 49
located inside the camera (Fig. 10).
Upper dial. - The upper dial adds the frames in
forward motion and subtracts them in reverse motion:
from 0 to 50 frames, for the H16 camera,
from 0 to 100 frames for the H8 camera.
Lower dial. - The lower dials totalizes the frames in
forward motion and subtracts them in reverse motion:
in 50's up to 1,000 frames, for the H16 camera,
in 50's up to 2,000 frames, for the H8 camera.
Beyond these figures, the cycle starts again and the
totals indicated by both dials must be added to the 1,000
(or 2,000) frames already totalized. It will be easy to
control at any moment if the totals given by the frame
counter dials are a first or second cycle by simply
checking the footage counter; bear in mind that:
1,000 frames of 16 mm. film correspond to 7.62 m of
2,000 frames of 8 mm. film correspond to 7.62 m. of
in other words:
1 metre of 16 mm. film contains 131.23 frames,
1 metre of 8 mm. film contains 262.46 frames.
(The figures given for 8 mm. films refer only to one
row of frames on double 8 mm.)
Setting frame counter back to zero:
First set the "frame by frame" dial back to zero by
turing milled knob on shaft 14 for handcranking. Then set
the "totalizator" dial to zero by turning the milled knob
which is just underneath both dials.
Marking if a partly exposed
film has to be removed:
If a partly exposed film has to be removed from the
camera and used again after shooting with other films,
proceed as follows:
When loading the first film, mark the leader with a
color pencil or with ink (Through the aperture which is
accessible when the turret head is turned),
then set the frame counter back to zero.
When removing the film note the figures of both the
frame counter and the footage counter.
If all this is done with the utmost care, it will be
easy to reload the film which must start at the exact
point where the exposure has been interrupted. (See
Unloading the camera).
Button 19 enables the speed to be altered, even while
the mechanism is in action, from 8 to 64 pictures per
second. Never work the mechanism at a higher speed than
32 pictures per second unless the camera is loaded, as
this is injurious to the mechanism.
The normal speed of motion pictures is 16 pictures per
second, that is to say, the normal speed of projection of
silent films. (Stephanie would like to point out this
is now out of date - 18 f.p.s is the normal silent
speed) . A film "shot" at a speed lower than 16
pictures per second will give on the screen an impression
of accelerated movement. A film "shot" at a speed higher
than 16 pictures per second will give a slow-motion
effect. (See Diaphragm opening and
Starting the mechanism:
The mechanism is set in motion by pressing sharply on
button 21: as soon as pressure on this button is
released, the mechanism will stop. This is the normal
starting button. To film without being compelled to
remain near the apparatus - for instance, to film oneself
- move the lateral button 22 on to M. To stop the
mechanism, move the same button on to "Stop".
Single Exposure Device:
To make a single exposure, move button 22 to P.
Time exposures are made by pushing down lever 17 to
position T and then setting button 22 on P. The shutter
will remain open as long as button 22 is kept on P.
To obtain instantaneous exposures, move lever 17 to
position I and then set button 22 on P. (see Illusion
The antinuous release is an accessory available on
request. It allows the mechanism to be set in motion
without jerking or unsteadiness, whether moving pictures
or single exposures are being made.
To disengage the spring of the motor, whether fully
wound or not, bring down lever 12 to 0 (13). In case of
resistance being felt before lever 12 can be brought
right down, push button 21. This will ease the operation.
The transport mechanism of the film is thus made
independent of the clockwork motor and may be worked by
other means. To handcrank, introduce the handle provided
into socket 14 and set button 22 on M. To wind the film
backwards, turn the handle in the direction of the arrow.
To handcrank forwards, turn the handle the other way. The
speed regulator also acts as a brake when the mechanism
is worked by hand, so that one should not try to
handcrank faster than the speed for which button 19 has
When being wound backwards, the film is automatically
taken up by delievery spool 28. It is therefore possible
to wind back any length of film. When the film is wound
back, the counter subtracts. Axis 14 may also be operated
by some other means than handcranking - for instance, by
a special electric motor.
Never rewind the motor by means of the handle or the
winding key whilst the motor is disengaged.
To re-engage the spring motor, move button 22 on to
"Stop", detach the cranking handle and bring lever 12 on
Safety Locking Device:
To prevent the mechanism from starting and ruining the
film when the camera is loaded, either by accident or on
account of careless handling, move lever 12 to the
position 0. This should be done whenever the camera is
not in use or is handed over to someone for safe
At the end of a film:
As soon as a reel has been exposed, which can be
ascertained by means of the counter, allow the mechanism
to work for a little while to make sure that the trailer
has passed through. This can be checked at all times, as
directed before. Get ready the metal container in which
the reel of film was supplied. Open the camera,
preferably in a shady corner, and replace the reel of
film immediately in the metal container, which in its
turn should be put into the cardboard box ready to be
sent for processing.
Before the complete reel has
Push down lever 17 to T. Remove the lid, either in a
shady corner or, if possible, in total darkness. The loop
guides 31 and 39 are already open. Open film guide 34 by
sligtly lifting the knob which holds it in position and
remove the film from sprocket 32. Close film guide 34.
Open film guide 36 by slightly lifting the knob as with
guide 34, and open pad 33 in the same way. Now move
button 22 on to P so that the claw is withdrawn from the
gate, and while holding it in this position remove the
film from the latter and from sprocket 38.
Close film guide 36 and pad 33. Close the loop guides
for the automatic loading (See Marking
if a partly exposed film has to be removed)
Special note on 8 mm. films double run (model H8
When 8 mm. double run film has been passed through the
camera once, it has only been exposed on one side. To
expose the other side, turn round the spools and reload
as instructed in Chapter 1.
The white figures I and II on Paillard spools supplied
with the apparatus will serve as a reminder as to whether
the film has been exposed on one or both sides.
Chapter III -
Interchangeability of lenses:
The Paillard model H camera is made to take
interchangeable lenses, the mounts of which are provided
with an international standard thread. Model H16 takes
standard 1 inch thread (25.4 mm. setting 17.52 mm.).
while model H8 takes the small standard five-eighths inch
(15.8 mm, setting 12.29 mm.). Thus it is always possible
to complete the optical equipment by the purchase of new
lenses of varying focus and power and of any make.
Each lens supplied with the camera must be accompanied
by a certificate from E. Paillard & Cie S.A., bearing
the numbers of the lens and of the apparatus and
guaranteeing accurate focussing. When lenses ar
epurchased after the camera has been bought, it is
recommended that such lenses be sent with the camera to
Paillard Works or to their accredited representatives,
and a new certificate in respect of the proper fitting of
such lenses should be insisted upon.
The lenses must be screwed securely into the lens
openings, but must not be forced.
The turret of model H can accommodate three lenses,
the focal lengths of which may vary from F=15 mm. (12.5
mm in the case of H8) to F=150 mm. and more.
To move a lens into taking position, turn the turret
round on its axis. Spring sockets mark the respective
positions of the three lenses.
The model h camera is normally supplied with a
trifocal viewfinder 7 permitting of strict correction of
The viewfinder may be placed in two different
The viewfinder 7 may occupy two different positions on
the camera. Position 1 shown in Fig. 2 is especially
suitable for the transport of the camera in its case. In
this position the viewfinder will give accurate centering
for all views at a distance of six feet or more from the
lens. Position 2 shown in Figs. 3 and 8 permits of highly
accurate centering down to a distance of 20 inches from
To change the position of the viewfinder, turn the
milled ring 8 until the two red points are opposite each
other. Then pull the viewfinder backwards and it will
slide out of clamps 10 and 11. To place the viewfinder in
position, see that levers 6 and 9 are on the outside,
turn round the milled ring until the red point is
opposite the corresponding red point on the finder and
slide the finder into position on the side of the lid.
Once it is in position, turn milled ring 8 in the
direction of the arrow shown in Figure 3.
For dead accurate centering, fix the viewfinder in
position 2 on the side of the lid (Figs. 3 or 8). In this
position there is no vertical parallax and the slight
lateral parallax will be corrected by the sliding of
eyepiece 26 of viewfinder by means of the knurled screw
27. The scale given above euepiece 26 corresponds to the
distances between subject and lens. Always return the
scale to infinity after using the camera.
Using the viewfinder with lenses of various focal
When levers 6 and 9 on the viewfinder are placed
horizontally, the viewfinder is ready for use with the
standard focal length lens supplied with the camera. This
focal length is engraved on the optical section (5) of
the viewfinder. By raising or lowering levers 6 and 9 the
finder is adjusted for use with one or other of the
lenses of different focal length on the turret. The
corresponding focal length is engraved on the lever.
The optical section 5 of the viewfinder is
interchangeable. It is composed of the lenses and the
levers, so that when a further set of lenses is bought a
new set can also be bought for the viewfinder to
correspond with them. Certain combinations of widely
varying focal lengths, however, are not possible on the
Chapter IV - How
to Film - General Rules
Regulate the speed, remembering that the normal speed
for projection is 16 pictures per second. (Stephanie's
note: this is no longer the case, but it was the case
when this camera was new).
If the viewfinder is used in position 2, that is,
fixed to the side of the lid of the camera, correct the
parallax according to the distance between the lens and
the subject so as to obtain dead accurate centering.
Varying focal length of lenses:
Make sure that the viewfinder is regulated for use
with the taking lens on the turret.
With the exception of fixed focus lenses, all lenses
supplied with the model H camera are fitted with a
focussing rng. This permits them to be regulated to the
distance between the subject and lens, thus making for
pin-point definition. The nearer the subject to the lens,
the greater must be the care taken to ensure accurate
focussing. More care in focussing is also demanded by
large aperture lenses, particularly when it is necessary
to use a large stop.
In case of doubt in the estimation of distance, it is
best to err on the long side. When the subject is moving
towards the camera it is advisable as a general rule to
focus for the nearest spot to which it will approach. On
most lenses, the scale engraved corresponds to a distance
measured from the plane of the film to the subject.
It should be remember that the plane of the film in
Model H16 is 17.52 mm, and in Model H8 12.29 mm. from the
plane of the turret against which the lens fits when the
latter is screwed home in position. Make sure that the
focussed lens is in the taking position on the turret,
i.e. opposite the opening in the gate.
Instructions for the Use of the Critical Visual
A prism covering a large part of the subject is fitted
inside the camera opposite the upper lens opening of the
turret. The prism is protected from outside dust by a
flat-headed screw which can be removed when it is desired
to use the prismatic focussing device. The viewfinder
must be removed and placed in position 2 on the side of
the lid (Fig. 8). This allows the eyepiece to be fixed on
the upper part of the prism.
Centre the subject through the viewfinder. Rotate the
turret so that the lens it is wished to focus is in front
of the prism. Open out fully he iris disphragm of the
lens. Focus by means of the focussing mount on the lens
until the subject, seen through the magnifying glass, is
Rotate the turret so that the lens thus focussed is
brought into the taking position, being careful not to
disturb the setting. Set the iris diaphragm to correspond
with the required exposure and once again check the
centering through the viewfinder.
Regulate the opening of the diaphragm of the lens
- The amount of light on the subject.
- The speed at which the speed regulator has been
- The H and D speed of the film
The special Paillard Bolex table (missing)
shows the opening of the diaphragm for most usual
subjects. Consult this table often until you have
memorised the information given. The closing of the
diaphragm to the extent of one of the gradations marked
on the scale diminishes by half the amount of light
allowed to pass through the lens. The opening of the
diaphragm by one gradation doubles the amount of light,
opening by two gradations quadruples it, and so on.
Important! - Opening of diaphragm is obtained
by turning the ring towards a smaller figure (2.8 is a
greater opening than 4). It is closed down by turning it
to a higher figure.
Diaphragm opening and
It should be borne in mind that altering the speed
alters the time od exposure. Thus, when filming at 8
frames per second, the time of exposure is doubled. The
normal time of exposure is 1/30 second at 16 pictures per
second, which is the normal speed for shooting. When the
film is run at 64 frames per secnd, the exposure is
reduced to a quarter of the normal, i.e. to 1/120 second.
Set the diaphragm of the lens accordingly.
Examples. - If the speed of shooting is doubled by
changing it from 16 to 32 exposures per second, open the
diaphragm by one stop on the scale. If the rate is
quadrupled, open by two stops. On the other hand, if the
film runs at 8 frames per second, close the diaphragm by
The use of a good quality exposure meter is
recommended as a help towards the avoidance of
irregularities in exposure.
Hold the camera very steady. Whenever possible use a
stand or some other support. A stand is necessary when
filming with a lens of a higher focal length that 50 mm.
The base 4 of the camera is provided with a universal
screw fitting for a stand. For use with Kodak thread a
special bush can be supplied.
Panoram very slowly. Allow the subject to move within
the field of the lens, otherwise follow the subject very
Rewind the spring of the motor after every scene.
Varying light intensity on subjects:
As far as possible, avoid filming too many dark and
light subjects one after the other.
In case of jamming, do not force any part of the
mechanism. Endeavour to rectify the trouble in a dark
room or a shady corner so as to avoid fogging too much
Chapter V - How
to Film - Various Possibilities
All makes of color film can be used on model H
cameras. The steady running speed of the apparatus from
the first frame of each scene ensures excellent results
even with color emulsions which are particularly
sensitive to the slightest difference in time of
Follow the directions contained in the cartons issued
by the film manufacturers.
Indoor subjects with or without artificial
If a large aperture and high-speed film are used,
indoor films may be taken with the Model H camera; very
good results are also obtained by means of artificial
lighting. To ascertain the diaphragm at which to set the
lens, consult an exposure table or use an exposure
The model H camera lends itself admirably to the
taking of titles as it incorporates all necessary
features, ei.e. focussing of the lens, dead accurate
centering of the view-finder down to 20 inches, taking
speed of 8 pictures per second in case of poor lighting,
handcranking or working of themechanism by means of an
electric motor, reverse mechanism.
Illusion of Movement:
Thanks to the single exposure device, it is possible
to create an illusion of movement in subjects which the
eye is accustomed to see at a standstill. In this way the
growth of a plant, animated drawings or titles, etc. may
be brought on to the screen, and the effect of movement
be obtained in any subject by changing its position after
each single exposure.
Needless to say, the illumination used from one
exposure to another must remain the same or else the
diaphragm of the lens must be regulated accordingly.
Above all, the camera must be held steady.
The speed of instantaeous exposures can be regulated
by means of button 19. According to the position of the
button from 8 to 64 pictures per second, a range of
exposures from 1/20 to 1/80 of a second can be obtained.
For an instantaneous exposure equal to the exposure of
film run at 16 pictures per second the speed regulating
button 19 should be set on 24 pictures per second.
Portrait attachments, color filters,
To film subjects at smaller distances from the lens
than any provided on the scale, a portrait attachment
should be fitted in front of the lens. These attachments
are obtainable for most lenses, their effect being the
filtering od light rays in order to bring certain parts
of the subject (clouds, half tones, contrasts, distant
object etc.) into relief. When purchasing a colour
filter, inquire its coefficient, so as to be able to set
the diaphragm of the lens accordingly, always bearing in
mind the H and D speed of the film you are using.
Ordinary fades, super-impositions, lap
A fade consists in the introduction or closing of a
scene by means of a progressive appearance or
disappearance of the subject, which is often more
pleasing to witness on the screen than an abrupt change
of scene. In a "fade-in" the screen at first appears
dark, and the picture then slowly becomes clearer until
it is normal. In the "fade-out" the picture disappears
gradually on the screen. (These effects are obtained by
under-exposure, the amount of light allowed to pass
through the lens being slowly changed).
To obtan either form of fading, use may be made of the
iris diaphragm of the lens, which will be opened or
closed within a second or two of the start or end of a
scene. It is prefereable, however, to use an accessory
known as a "totally closing iris diaphragm", obtainable
for most lenses of the Model H camera. This iris can be
attached to the front of the lens to form a supplementary
diaphragm; it is manipulated by means of a loose lever
and permits of the progressive closing down of the
diaphragm until complete darkness is obtained.
The unlimited reverse action of the model H camera
permits double exposures to be made over any footage of
the film, for the purpose of obtaining super-impositions.
When winding the film back on to the top spool for double
exposures do not forget to cover the "taking" lens to
prevent the light passing through whilst the film is
being brought back. Make a note of the reading of the
footage indicator so that you can wind back the exact
number of feet required for double exposure.
Lap dissolves consist in "fading-out" and "fading-in"
by means of super-impositions on the appearing or
disappearing scenes. To make a lap dissolve, terminate
the first scene as a "fade-out", making a careful note of
the footage used for such a fade or timing it with a
stop-watch. Then rewind precisely the same footage of
film on to the top spool (taking care to cover the lens
whilst doing so); film the next scene as a "fade-in"
using precisely the same footage. One may also obtain
fades by other means, such as the use of masks, opaque
screens, etc. Fades obtained by means of the alteration
of focus are also of interest, and it is possible to end
a scene by throwing the subject out of focus or to start
one out of focus and bring it up to normal.
For other effects which can be obtained with the model
H camera, read the information contained in books
specially dealing with trick work.
Chapter VI -
Keep the model H camera free from dust and damp. The
exterior of the lenses must be cleaned from time to time
with very fine tissue paper or a soft and dry cloth, and
should be rubbed very gently so as to avoid
The inside of the apparatus must be kept very clean.
Slight deposits of dust or emulsion may form on the gate
or on the pressure pad during the passage of the film.
These, and the aperture in particular, should be
carefully cleaned by means of a clean cloth wound around
the end of a pencil. If the emulsion deposit has
hardened, damp the cloth slightly and wipe with a dry
The mechanism of the model H camera may be compared to
that of a high-quality watch, which very seldom requires
A reserve of grease and oil contained in the mechanism
of the camera on delivery is sufficient to maintain the
apparatus in good condition for two or three years of
normal use. At the end of this period it is recommended
that the camera be entrusted to the supplier for general
overhaul. If the owner wishes to oil the camera himself,
he should proceed as follows: allow a drop of fine
non-freezing chronometer oil, entirely free from acid, to
fall on all visible axes of the mechanism. Allow one or
two dropd to fall on the cam of the claw, which may be
seen from the opening which allows the claw to pass. Then
set the unloaded mechanism in motion for a moment or two
and carefully wipe away all excess oil. Never attempt to
dismantle the mechanism of the model H camera.
Non-observance of this rule nullifies any guarantee in
respect of the smooth working of the apparatus.
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